Skip Navigation

 What other diseases can transplant treat? 

Transplant may be a treatment option for:

  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia
  • Essential thrombocytosis
  • Ewing sarcoma
  • Fanconi anemia
  • Germ cell ovarian cancer
  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML)
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Myelofibrosis
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Polycythemia vera
  • Testicular cancer
  • Thalassemia
  • Other rare diseases  

Other diseases not listed here may also be treated with transplant. You can find a detailed list of diseases treated with transplant here.

How does blood or marrow transplant (BMT) work for these diseases?

BMT replaces the unhealthy bone marrow with healthy marrow from a donor. Bone marrow makes blood-forming cells. You need healthy blood-forming cells to make all of the cells in your blood.

There are 2 types of transplant:

  • Autologous transplant, which uses the patient’s own blood-forming cells. The cells are collected, stored, and given back after chemotherapy (chemo) or radiation.
  • Allogeneic transplant, which uses healthy blood-forming cells from a family member, unrelated donor or umbilical cord blood.

For both types of transplant, you get chemo, with or without radiation, to kill the unhealthy cells. Then, the replacement cells are given to you through an intravenous (IV) line. The cells travel to the inside of your bones to make healthy blood cells.

The entire transplant process, from the start of chemo or radiation until hospital discharge, can last weeks to months. This is followed by many months of recovery near the transplant center and at home. Your transplant team will watch you closely to prevent and treat any side effects or complications.

When to see a transplant doctor

Disease     When to see a transplant doctor
 Diamond-Blackfan anemia
  • At diagnosis
 
Essential thrombocytosis     
  • The disease has intermediate risk or high risk features
  • The disease doesn't get better after treatment
 
 Ewing sarcoma
  •  At diagnosis if the disease has spread to other areas in the body
  • The disease came back (relapsed) after treatment 
 
 Fanconi anemia
  • At diagnosis
 
Germ cell ovarian cancer
  •  The disease doesn’t get better with your first treatment
  • The disease comes back (relapses) quickly after treatment
 
 Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)
  • At diagnosis
 
 Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML)
  • At diagnosis
 
Medulloblastoma
  •  The disease came back (relapsed) after treatment
 
 Myelofibrosis
  • The disease has intermediate risk or high risk features
  • The disease doesn’t get better after treatment
 
 Neuroblastoma
  •  At diagnosis if the disease has spread to other areas in the body or if it is a later stage with high risk features
  • The disease gets worse during treatment
  • The disease came back (relapsed) after treatment
 
 Polycythemia vera
  •  The disease has intermediate risk or high risk features
  • The disease doesn’t get better after treatment
 
 Testicular cancer
  •  The disease doesn’t get better after treatment
  • The disease comes back (relapses) quickly after treatment
 
 Thalassemia
  •  At diagnosis if you have severe HbE/Beta Thalassemia or Beta Thalassemia major
 


If you can’t find the disease you have listed here, ask your doctor if transplant might be an option for you. You can also contact our Patient Support Center for help finding out if transplant might be an option for you.

            Contact the Patient Support Center:
            Call : 1 (888) 999-6743
            Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. - 5 p.m. Central Time
            Email: patientinfo@nmdp.org

Your first appointment with a transplant doctor

At your first appointment, the transplant doctor will:

  • Review your medical history.
  • Talk with you about your treatment options.
  • Discuss the risks and benefits of transplant.
  • Recommend the best time for you to get a transplant and prepare for treatment
  • Start a donor search even if you don’t need a transplant right away. This can help you get a transplant faster if it’s needed later.

Questions to ask your doctor

Ask questions so you understand your treatment options and can make decisions that are best for you. Questions you may want to ask your doctor include:

  • What are the chances of cure with a transplant? Without a transplant?
  • What are the risks of waiting or trying other treatments before a transplant?
  • Do I (or my child) have any risk factors that might affect transplant outcomes?
  • What are the possible side effects of transplant? How can they be reduced?
  • How might my (or my child’s) quality of life change over time, with or without transplant?

Most recent medical review completed March 2017.