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A common blood cell count measured after stem cell transplant. Neutrophils are responsible for much of the body's protection against infection.
Two or more forms of a gene. A single allele for each gene location is inherited from each parent. For example, at the gene location for eye color, the allele might result in blue or brown eyes. Alleles are important in molecular HLA typing (See HLA).
A fast growing cancer of the lymphocytes, one of the white blood cells. Also called acute lymphocytic leukemia. Appears most often in children, but can occur in adults.
A cancer of the myelocytes, one of the white blood cells. AML occurs in all ages and is the more common acute leukemia in adults. AML affects a different type of white cells than those affected by ALL.
Another way of saying acute myelogenous leukemia (See AML).
Any bone marrow/blood stem cell transplant in which the cells come from another person rather than the patient's own cells. The donated cells can come from a related or unrelated donor.
A condition where not enough oxygen gets to the tissues and the organs because of too few red blood cells in the blood.
Any of various proteins in the blood that are created by the immune system to neutralize foreign substances in the body. The immune system creates antibodies in response to substances in the body that contain foreign antigens, such as viruses.
A substance that causes a reaction from the body's immune system.
A procedure where blood is drawn from a patient's or donor's arm and circulated through a machine that removes certain cells such as stem cells, white blood cells or platelets. The rest of the blood is returned to the patient or donor.
A condition where the bone marrow makes too few white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets.
A bone marrow/blood stem cell transplant in which the patient's own cells are used.
Be The Match® helps people with leukemia, lymphoma, sickle cell anemia and other diseases who may need a bone marrow or umbilical cord blood transplant. Be The Match is operated by the NMDP.
Cells that are not fully formed.
The stage of chronic myelogenous leukemia when large amounts of blast cells are found in the blood.
Cells found in the blood that can grow into a red blood cell, a white blood cell or a platelet. Also called hematopoietic stem cells. (See also, Stem Cells and Embryonic Stem Cells).
A spongy tissue inside of large bones where the body's blood cells (red cells, white cells and platelets) are made.
Giving healthy bone marrow to patients whose marrow is damaged. There are two types: allogeneic and autologous.
A needle that is inserted into a vein in the body, usually in the chest. Attached to the needle is a valve that rests outside of the body that is used to withdraw blood samples for testing.
Drugs that kill cancer cells to prepare the patient for a blood stem cell transplant.
A cancer of the lymphocytes on the white blood cells. It usually occurs in persons over the age of 60. It is more common in men.
A cancer of the myelocytes on the white blood cells. CML can happen at any age in either males or females. It is rare before age 10 and occurs most often in persons over age 45.
Hospitals with experience and facilities to collect stem cells and care for stem cell donors before and after the stem cell donation procedure. NMDP collection centers are required to meet standards for quality and donation experience.
The chemotherapy and/or radiation that is given to patients before the marrow or blood stem cell transplant. The purpose is to kill diseased cells so the new cells can grow.
A repeat tissue typing test done to make sure the donor and patient match. This is one of the final tests done before transplant.
Any disorder present at birth.
Another name for thalassemia major. (See also Thalassemia.)
The NMDP Coordinating Center, office located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, establishes standards, policies, and procedures for its Network of Transplant, Donor, Apheresis and Collection Centers, Cord Blood Banks, Recruitment Groups and Cooperative Registries. From this office, Network Centers performance is monitored; patients' searches for compatible unrelated donors are coordinated; and communication between Network members is facilitated. The scheduling, coordination, transport and tracking of unrelated stem cell collections are managed by the Coordinating Center.
The blood of newborns found in the umbilical cord and placenta. It contains large numbers of blood stem cells. For this reason, blood stem cells from the placenta and umbilical cord are collected after birth and stored for transplant.
An organization that helps to collect and store umbilical cord blood for transplant.
A virus that can cause pneumonia in blood stem cell transplant patients.
Carries genetic information throughout the body.
Determining a person's HLA type by direct examination of the DNA. DNA-based typing is favored by our organization because it is very accurate and efficient.
See Sample Repositories.
A volunteer who has donated stem cells for a patient.
An organization with the experience, staff and facilities to recruit and manage interaction with volunteer stem cell donors. An NMDP donor center works with volunteers listed on the Be The Match Registry® and follows NMDP guidelines.
The process that a closely matched potential donor goes through to make sure he or she is healthy and ready to donate marrow or blood stem cells. Workup includes a detailed information session at the Donor Center, a complete physical examination and donation of blood samples for testing and research. Sometimes a unit of the donor's blood is saved in case it is needed later.
HLA typing to determine the HLA-DR determinants carried or expressed by a donor or patient. HLA-DR typing is almost exclusively performed by DNA-based methods. (See Prospective HLA-DR typing.)
Stem cells that come from human embryos. Stem cells from embryos are not used for marrow or blood stem cell transplants.
The stage when the stem cells given during the transplant start to grow and make blood cells.
A form of anesthesia for which medication is inserted into the outer (epidural) layer of the spinal cord to block any painful sensations from the point of insertion to the lower extremities. The donor is awake with this form of anesthesia. About 20 percent of bone marrow donors from the Be The Match Registry receive epidural anesthesia. Epidural anesthesia is a form of regional anesthesia.
A rare, inherited type of aplastic anemia. Found most often in young children.
A protein that helps bone marrow make more white blood cells. Filgrastim is also known as GCSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) or by the tradename Neupogen®. It is given to donors who have agreed to donate peripheral blood stem cells. This moves blood stem cells from the marrow into the blood stream so that they can be collected by apheresis. It is also given to patients to help increase their white blood cell count after the transplant.
A search becomes formal when a physician at an NMDP Transplant Center asks that one or more volunteer stem cell donors who are potential matches for a patient be contacted to undergo additional compatibility testing. The Donor Center where volunteer stem cell donors are registered contacts them to arrange collection of blood samples. Once a search is formal, regular reports of the search status are sent to the Transplant Center.
This form of anesthesia causes stem cell donors to lose consciousness, so they are unaware of the surgical procedure that removes their marrow or any other sensations. General anesthesia is used for about 75 percent of bone marrow donors from the Be The Match Registry.
A characteristic or trait that is influenced or encoded by one or more genes.
Absent or inadequate production of white blood cells, platelets and red blood cells following a transplant.
A condition where the transplanted donor marrow or blood stem cells attack the patient's body. GVHD can be mild or serious and is sometimes life threatening.
Another term used when referring to Filgrastim. (See Filgrastim.)
A rare type of chronic leukemia usually found in middle-aged men. HCL rarely requires BMT as a treatment.
A special glossary of health care coverage terms can be found in the Patient Resources section of this Web site.
The process of forming blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Blood forming stem cells capable of producing all the components of blood and marrow. Cells capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
The part of the red blood cell which carries oxygen.
Traits that are passed down to children from their parents.
A rare and often fatal blood disease. A type of white blood cell called a histiocyte grows wildly and attacks body organs.
A system that determines how closely the patient and donor blood stem cells match.
Human immunodificiency virus that causes AIDS. People with AIDS suffer infections, malignancies and neurologic disease.
Proteins on white blood cells that make each person's tissue unique. The HLA A, B, C and DR proteins are important in matching patients and donors for a marrow or blood stem cell transplant.
A person's own specific HLA A, B, C and DR proteins.
Laboratories under contract with the National Marrow Donor Program to perform HLA typing on donor or recipient blood and cell samples.
A lymphoma that most often occurs in young adults. Hodgkin disease that does not respond to chemotherapy may be treated by an autologous marrow or blood stem cell transplant and less often by an allogeneic marrow or blood stem cell transplant. Also called Hodgkin lymphoma.
A rare virus transmitted by cellular components of blood. Two forms of the virus have been identified, HTLV-I and HTLV-II.
The combined workings of the marrow and lymphocytes, which fight to protect the body from foreign invaders.
The process by which a person receives an explanation of the risks and benefits to a medical treatment or research study and agrees to participate and indicates in writing that he or she understands and agrees to the information provided. A person can provide informed consent at the age of 18.
Elements in a person's blood which indicate if a person has had an infectious disease.
The method to determine if a person has or did have an infectious disease.
A special glossary of health care coverage terms can be found in the Patient section of this website.
The process of separating white blood cells from the rest of the blood. (See Apheresis.)
A group of cancers of the white blood cells. Leukemias can be acute (fast forming) or chronic (slow growing).
A type of white blood cell that helps protect the body from invading organisms. T-cells are a kind of lymphocyte that causes Graft Versus Host Disease.
A cancer of the lymph tissue. Included in this disease category are Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Cancer cells have been found.
See bone marrow.
A surgical procedure by which a person donates a portion of their bone marrow for a patient who had diseased marrow and needs a bone marrow transplant.
In a blood stem cell transplant, the match level explains how much alike the tissues of the patient and the donor are.
See Physical Examination.
Treatment from a trained medical practitioner for a disease or condition.
A test that shows if the patient's and donor's cells react to each other.
At the level of a molecule. Molecular HLA typing is the same as DNA typing. Molecular typing is done at the smallest level of the cells.
A cancer of the plasma cells in the blood. Frequently associated with bone pain and infections. More common in males than females.
Formerly called pre-leukemia or 'smoldering' leukemia. It is a disease of the bone marrow in which too few platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells are made.
A disease that causes scar tissue to form in the bone marrow. As a result of the scar tissue, normal blood cell production is blocked. Normal blood cell production then moves to the spleen which then becomes enlarged. Anemia results because blood production in the spleen does not work as well as in the bone marrow.
A group of disorders caused by increased production of blood cells by the bone marrow. The four types of Myeloproliferative Disorders are:
A nonprofit organization that operates Be The Match. The NMDP also matches patients with donors, educates health professionals, and conducts research so more lives can be saved. The NMDP is entrusted to operate the C.W. Bill Young Cell Transplantation Program, including the Be The Match Registry.
The Apheresis Centers, Cord Blood Banks, Recruitment Groups, Donor Transplant and Collection Centers that work with the NMDP. The NMDP network also includes sample repositories and HLA typing laboratories under contract with the NMDP.
A cancer that is found in the lymph tissue.
A type of transplant that uses lower doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation to prepare a patient for transplant. It relies on the immune system to kill the disease. It may be a treatment option for older patients or those with other health problems because lower doses of chemotherapy/radiation are easier for the patient to handle.
A cancer that occurs in children and is sometimes treated by a marrow or blood stem cell transplant.
A type of white blood cell. The number of neutrophils present in the bloodstream is often used as a measure of stem cell engraftment.
Sequence of nucleic acids used as a probe in DNA based tissue typing.
A disease of the bones where the bones get very hard and the bone marrow cannot grow.
Hematopoietic stem cells are collected from a donor's circulating blood through an apheresis procedure following mobilization from the marrow with Filgrastim. The stem cells are then transplanted into a recipient.
Peripheral blood flows through the bloodstream in the body. Some blood stem cells are found in the peripheral blood.
Withdrawing blood from a vein (usually a vein in the arm) usually for testing purposes.
A general evaluation of a person's physical condition performed by a physician or nurse.
The liquid portion of unclotted blood. (Serum is the liquid portion of clotted blood.)
A blood cell needed to control bleeding.
See Volunteer Donor.
The process by which a patient's HLA type is sent to the NMDP and the patient's HLA is compared to the HLA types of all volunteers and umbilical cord blood units listed on the Be The Match Registry and other registries worldwide — at that time. The patient's demographic information and basic disease status are also submitted at preliminary search. The preliminary search becomes formal when specific donors are requested for further testing on behalf of the patient.
A regimen of chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy that destroys a patient's marrow. The marrow is then restored by transplanting stem cells.
A software program developed by the NMDP that selects stored samples from donors who have been HLA-A, B typed, but not HLA-DR typed, and submits them for HLA-DR typing in advance of the donor being identified as a potential match for a specific patient. The goal of this program is to increase the number and diversity of fully HLA typed volunteer stem cell donors on the Be The Match Registry, thus reducing search times and costs for patients.
A specific plan for treatment of a disease.
Treatment aimed at eliminating cancer cells, shrinking tumors or suppressing the immune system by using high-energy radiation from X-ray machines or other sources.
A cell that carries oxygen to all organs and tissues. Also known as an erthrocyte.
An organization that recruits potential donors. Groups (or centers) that recruit potential donors for the Be The Match Registry follow NMDP guidelines.
Refers to the Be The Match Registry, a confidential listing of potential stem cell donors and donated cord blood units and is operated by the NMDP.
Includes both epidural and spinal.
The return of the disease after treatment.
When cancer cells are gone after treatment.
A sample of a donor's or recipient's blood that is used in research studies. Typically, blood samples are collected for research studies but sometimes a marrow sample is requested at the time of donation.
Refers to the length of time volunteer stem cell donors remain on the Be The Match Registry and are able to be located, are in good health and are still willing to donate.
Laboratories under contract with the NMDP to store blood and cell samples from potential donors on the Be The Match Registry for later DNA-based HLA typing.
A cancer most often found in muscle or bone.
The process of comparing a patient's HLA antigens to those of the volunteer donors and umbilical cord blood units on the Be The Match Registry and other registries worldwide (preliminary search) and testing potentially matched donors to identify the best donor or cord blood unit for the patient (formal search). The search process may take from several weeks to more than a year.
A test using serum from the blood to find the patient's or donor's HLA typing.
See also Aplastic Anemia.
An inherited disease in which the immune system does not work well. It is often treated with a marrow or blood stem cell transplant.
An inherited type of anemia which occurs most often in Africans and African Americans. The disease gets its name from the sickle shape (a C-shape) of the red blood cells. These cells cannot move oxygen very well. The disease is sometimes treated with a marrow or blood stem cell transplant.
A person who has one gene for sickle cell anemia is said to have sickle cell trait. Sickle cell trait cannot change to become sickle cell anemia. A person will develop sickle cell anemia only if both parents pass on the trait (gene) to him or her.
A form of anesthesia in which medication is inserted into the spinal column to block any painful sensations that might be felt from the point of insertion down to the lower extremities. The donor is conscious under this form of anesthesia. Nearly five percent of marrow donors (from the Be The Match Registry) receive spinal anesthesia.
A computerized system used to manage all patient follow-up histories and maintain the listing of potential donors and donated cord blood units on the Be The Match Registry.
A common word for any of the cells in the body that can grow into other kinds of cells. In blood stem cell transplants, blood stem cells are given to the patient after they are treated for the disease of the bone marrow. See also Blood Stem Cells, Embryonic Stem Cells and Hematopoietic Stem Cells.
The process of infusing healthy stem cells into persons who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy for one of many forms of leukemia, immunodeficiency, lymphoma, anemias, or metabolic disorders. There are three types of stem cell transplants: autologous, allogeneic and syngeneic. Healthy stem cells are collected from bone marrow, peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood. Once the healthy stem cells are infused into the patient's blood stream, the cells move from the blood vessels to the center of the bones, where they begin making new blood cells. (See Autologous, Allogeneic, and Syngeneic.)
A marrow or blood stem cell transplant from one identical twin to the other.
An instrument consisting of a hollow barrel and a plunger used to administer injections or to hold the liquid resulting from an aspiration.
A type of white blood cell.
A group of chronic, inherited anemias. Most often found in persons of Mediterranean, African and Southeast Asian descent.
Another term for HLA-typing.
A medical treatment to replace a recipient's diseased organ with a healthy organ from a donor.
Hospital based programs with experience, staff and facilities to perform allogeneic stem cell transplantation. NMDP transplant centers are required to meet standards for quality and transplant experience.
Any abnormal growth of cells. Tumors can be caused by cancer cells or non-cancer cells.
See HLA Typing.
A testing facility that performs HLA typing.
A stem cell from the blood of the umbilical cord and placenta. These cells have the potential to produce all the components of blood in the same manner as stem cells derived from marrow.
A marrow or blood stem cell transplant where the donor is not related to the patient.
A person who has agreed to donate marrow or stem cells for transplant. Volunteer donors are listed on the Be The Match Registry.
One of three main types of blood cells, along with red blood cells and platelets. White blood cells help protect the body from infection.
An inherited disease of the immune system that only occurs in boys. The white blood cells cannot fight infection. The number of platelets are low and of small size. Because of the low number of platelets, patients have many infections, bleed easily and often have a skin rash. A bone marrow transplant is the best known treatment for this disease.
The process that a closely matched potential donor undergoes to determine whether he or she is healthy and prepared to donate marrow or blood cells. Workup includes a detailed information session with a donor center coordinator and/or medical director, a thorough physical examination, a donation of blood samples for testing and research and usually a donation of autologous blood.
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Entrusted to operate the C.W. Bill Young Cell Transplantation Program, including Be The Match Registry®.
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